This book is included in the US Armed Forces Organizations section.
GUIDEBOOK FOR AIR FORCE INSTRUCTORS
~ : ~
Air Force Academic Instructor School: 2003
This training manual presents basic teaching principles and their application in Air Force teacher-learning
situations. It implements both AFPD 36-22, Military Training, and AFPD 36-23, Military Education. The
text addresses how people learn and how they communicate. It discusses various teaching methods and
techniques, and ways to evaluate learning and the reasons for such evaluation. The manual is for instructors
engaged in on-the-job training (OJT) and informal instruction as well as those assigned to Air Force
formal schools. Send comments and suggested improvements on AF Form 847, Recommendation for
Change of Publication, through channels, to HQ AU/CFS, 60 Shumacher Street, Maxwell AFB AL
36112-5337. The use of a name or trademark of any specific manufacturer, commercial product, commodity,
or service in this publication does not imply endorsement by the Air Force. Maintain and dispose
of records created as a result of processes prescribed in this publication in accordance with AFMAN
37-139, Records Disposition Schedule.
This manual provides the practical information needed to teach adult students. While it applies to most adult education situations, the emphasis is on a military setting. The manual was written and tested at the Air Force's Academic Instructor School at Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama.
1.1.1. As a new instructor, you will find the manual useful because it summarizes the best of what experts in education have written. If you have been to a library for material on teaching recently, you were probably bewildered by the array of topics and the number of specialized texts.
1.1.2. This manual concentrates on the "academic" classroom. While it is hard to clearly distinguish between technical and academic instruction, you might find the following comparison useful. Technical instruction normally includes a much higher proportion of the full range of theory and skills the graduate will need. When technical students are tested, the instructor can be sure of what they can do; the instructor has "proof" they have mastered the course material. In academic instruction, the course usually has a more general range of possible skills, objectives, and content. Unlike technical instruction, the course often has no "cap," and students are encouraged to go beyond the minimum stated objectives. Instead of having technical instruction's "proof" of learning, the academic classroom often has only samples of learning as evidence. Instructors must often be satisfied with a sampling process when designing individual class periods and evaluating student achievement. The process of sampling is further discussed in Chapter 3 and Chapter 4 (planning lessons) and Chapter 21 through Chapter 25 (evaluation).
NOTE: Do not expect to learn everything you need to know about teaching solely from a manual. Extensive as this manual may appear, it cannot provide you with the final stages of the process—teaching and being judged on your teaching skills. Even experienced instructors can profit from constructive feedback— from other teachers and students—on their lesson preparation and presentation.
CONTENTS Chapter 1—THE AIR FORCE INSTRUCTOR 1.1. Introduction. 1.2. Curriculum Planning. 1.3. Instructor Skills Useful In Other Duties. 1.4. The Air Force Approach To Academic Instruction. 1.5. Overview of Manual. 1.6. Summary. Chapter 2—LEARNING THEORY 2.1. Introduction. 2.2. A Historical View. 2.3. Combining the Approaches. 2.4. Summary. Chapter 3—WRITING STUDENT-CENTERED OBJECTIVES AND TESTS 3.1. Introduction. 3.2. Planning For Student-Centered Outcomes. Table 3.1. Cognitive Taxonomy. Table 3.2. Types of Learning. 3.3. Writing Lesson Objectives: 3.4. Summary: Chapter 4—THE LEVEL-OF-LEARNING LESSON PLANNING PROCESS Section 4A Overview 4.1. Introduction. 4.2. Bloom's Cognitive Taxonomy. Section 4B Learning Levels 4.3. Knowledge. 4.4. Comprehension: 4.5. Application. Section 4C Level-of-Learning Objectives 4.6. Overview. 4.7. Student Centeredness. 4.8. LOL. 4.9. Specific Subject. 4.10. Example of an LOL Objective: Section 4D Samples of Behavior 4.11. Overview. 4.12. Defining a Sample of Behavior: 4.13. Considerations in Writing Samples of Behavior: 4.14. Determining What To Sample. 4.15. Summary. Chapter 5—WRITING CRITERION OBJECTIVES Section 5A Introduction 5.1. Overview. 5.2. Relationship Between Samples of Behavior and Criterion Objectives. Section 5B Constructing Criterion Objectives 5.3. Importance of Construction. 5.4. Essential Elements. 5.5. Formats. 5.6. Mastery Learning. 5.7. Content Communicated by the Criterion Objective. 5.8. Performance. 5.9. The Action Verb. 5.10. Object of the Action: 5.11. Common Errors. 5.12. Summary. Section 5C Standards 65 5.13. Overview. 5.14. Types of Standards. 5.15. Common Errors. Section 5D Planning Tools 5.16. Task Steps As Planning Tools: 5.17. Summary. Chapter 6—DEVELOPING THE LESSON PLAN 6.1. The Importance of a Lesson Plan: 6.2. Determining the Objective. 6.3. Researching the Topic. 6.4. Selecting Instructional Methods. 6.5. Lesson Planning Format. 6.6. Organizing the Lesson. 6.7. The Strategy Statement: 6.8. Choosing Support Material: 6.9. Beginning and Ending the Lesson. 6.10. Preparing The Final Outline: 6.11. Summary. Chapter 7—DEVELOPING KNOWLEDGE-LEVEL LESSONS 7.1. Introduction. 7.2. Appropriateness of Classroom Instruction at the Knowledge Level. 7.3. Planning Knowledge-Level Lessons. 7.4. Developing the Teaching Outline. 7.5. Support Material: 7.6. Teaching the Lesson. 7.7. Summary. Chapter 8—DEVELOPING COMPREHENSION-LEVEL CONCEPT AND PRINCIPLE LESSONS 8.1. Introduction. 8.2. The Teaching of Concepts. 8.3. Organizing a Concept Teaching Plan. 8.4. Testing Concept Learning. 8.5. Sample Concept Teaching Plans (Part I): 8.6. The Teaching of Principles. 8.7. Logical Lesson Planning. 8.8. Testing Principle Learning: 8.9. Sample Plans for Teaching Principles (Part I—Cover Sheet). 8.10. Sampling Achievement of the Objective. 8.11. The Comprehension-Level Summary. 8.12. Summary. Chapter 9—DEVELOPING HIGHER-LEVEL COGNITIVE LESSONS 9.1. Introduction. 9.2. Higher Levels of Cognitive Learning: 9.3. Principles of Teaching and Learning at the Higher Levels. 9.4. Lesson Planning. 9.5. Summary. Chapter 10—WRITING AND MEASURING AFFECTIVE OBJECTIVES 10.1. Introduction. 10.2. A Structure For Attitude Development—The Affective Taxonomy. 10.3. Lesson Planning for Affective Development. Table 10.1. Cognitive and Affective Consequences. 10.4. Relationship of Affective Domain to Other Domains. 10.5. Affective Objectives Can be Specified and Measured. 10.6. Techniques for Specifying and Measuring Affective Objectives. 10.7. Similarity of Cognitive and Affective Learning Outcomes. 10.8. Interpreting and Modifying Criterion Objectives. 10.9. Stating Purely Affective Objectives. 10.10. Measuring Changes In Student Attitudes: 10.11. Using Published Attitude Scales. 10.12. Making Our Own Attitude Assessment Scale. 10.13. Pretest-Posttest Design. 10.14. Measuring Attitude Changes Following the Experience. 10.15. Dealing With the Higher Affective Levels. 10.16. Which Affective Measure Should Be Used? 10.17. Summary. Chapter 11—USING QUESTIONS FOR LEARNING 11.1. Introduction. 11.2. The Starting Point. 11.3. Determine Purpose. 11.4. Questions Categorized By Direction. 11.5. Effective Questioning Techniques. 11.6. Summary. Chapter 12—SURVEY OF TEACHING METHODS 12.1. Introduction. 12.2. Presentational Methods. 12.3. Student Verbal Interaction Methods. 12.4. Application Methods. 12.5. Summary. Chapter 13—THE TEACHING LECTURE METHOD 13.1. Introduction. 13.2. Types of Lectures. 13.3. Other Types of Oral Presentations. 13.4. Advantages and Disadvantages of the Lecture Method. 13.5. Preparing the Lecture. 13.6. Presenting the Lecture. 13.7. Summary: Chapter 14—THE GUIDED DISCUSSION METHOD 14.1. Introduction. 14.2. Selection and Planning Factors. 14.3. Organizing the Guided Discussion. 14.4. Conducting a Guided Discussion. 14.5. Post-Discussion Actions. 14.6. Summary. Chapter 15—THE CASE STUDY METHOD 15.1. Introduction. 15.2. Using Case Studies. 15.3. Teaching Value and Limitations: 15.4. Typical Case Applications. 15.5. Types of Cases. 15.6. Mode of Presentation: 15.7. Case Methodology. 15.8. Summary. Chapter 16—THE TEACHING INTERVIEW METHOD 16.1. Introduction. 16.2. Background: 16.3. Uses of the Teaching Interview. 16.4. Initial Planning Factors. 16.5. Coordination. 16.6. The Interview Lesson: 16.7. Introducing the Interview Lesson. 16.8. Conducting the Interview. 16.9. Ending the Interview. 16.10. Sample Lesson Plan for a Teaching Interview. 16.11. Summary. Chapter 17—THE DEMONSTRATION-PERFORMANCE METHOD 17.1. Introduction: 17.2. Planning and Developing a D-P Lesson. 17.3. Factors to Consider When Using the D-P Method: 17.4. The Sample D-P Lesson Plan: 17.5. Summary. Chapter 18—USING GAMES FOR LEARNING 18.1. Introduction. 18.2. Benefits of Using Games. 18.3. Classifying Games. 18.4. Various Games for Classroom Use. 18.5. Designing a Game. 18.6. Writing Game Questions. 18.7. Writing a Game Lesson Plan. 18.8. Administering the Game. 18.9. Cautions on Using Games. 18.10. General Considerations When Using Games. 18.11. Dr. Sivasailam Thiagarajan's Considerations. 18.12. Summary. Chapter 19—SELECTING TEACHING METHODS 19.1. Introduction. 19.2. Assumptions. Table 19.1. Teaching Methods Grid or Decision Table. 19.3. Definition of Terms. 19.4. Recommendations for Teaching Methods. 19.5. Lecture: 19.6. Indirect Discourse: 19.7. Demonstration-Performance: 19.8. Reading: 19.9. Self-Paced Methods: 19.10. Questioning: 19.11. Nondirected Discussion: 19.12. Guided Discussion: 19.13. Practical Exercises—Individual Projects: 19.14. Practical Exercises—Field Trips: 19.15. Practical Exercises—Experiential. 19.16. Case Studies: 19.17. Summary. Chapter 20—INSTRUCTIONAL MEDIA 20.1. Introduction. 20.2. Instructional Aids: 20.3. Selecting Instructional Aids. 20.4. Types of Instructional Aids. 20.5. Proofreading. 20.6. Distance Learning. 20.7. Summary. Chapter 21—INTRODUCTION TO EVALUATION 21.1. Introduction. 21.2. Nature of Evaluation. 21.3. How We Evaluate. 21.4. Characteristics of Evaluation. 21.5. Determining Means of Measurement. 21.6. Reasons for Evaluation. 21.7. Nature of Required Behavior: 21.8. Availability of Time and Facilities. 21.9. Availability of Qualified Faculty: 21.10. Summary. Chapter 22—CONSTRUCTING AND ADMINISTERING CLASSROOM TESTS 22.1. Introduction. 22.2. Suggestions for Preparing Any Test Item. 22.3. Selection Test Items. Table 22.1. Comparison Between the Two Major Types of Test Questions. 22.4. Multiple-Choice Items. 22.5. Matching Test Items. 22.7. Supply Test Items. 22.8. Completion Items. 22.9. Checklist for Writing Completion Items. 22.10. Short-Answer Items. 22.12. Checklist for Writing Essay or Short Answer Questions. 22.13. Assembling the Test. 22.14. Administering the Test. 22.15. Scoring Supply Items. 22.16. Scoring Essay Test Items. 22.17. Summary. Chapter 23—MEASURING LEARNING OUTCOMES 23.1. Introduction. 23.2. Overview and Review. 23.3. Test-Writing Process. 23.4. Summary. Chapter 24—EVALUATION BY RATING 24.1. Introduction. 24.2. Rating Methods. 24.3. Constructing the Rating Device. 24.4. Common Rating Errors. 24.5. Classifying Rating Errors. 24.6. Improving Ratings. 24.7. Summary. Chapter 25—CRITERION-REFERENCED EVALUATION 25.1. Introduction. 25.2. A CRT Reporting Format. 25.3. CRT Item Analysis. 25.4. Group CRT Data as a Management Tool. 25.5. Characteristics of CRT Evaluation. 25.6. Summary. Chapter 26—NORM-REFERENCED ANALYSIS Section 26A Overview 26.1. Introduction. Section 26B Grading Methods 26.2. Overview. 26.3. Rank-Order Grades. 26.4. Percentile-Rank Grades. Table 26.1. Computation of Percentile-Rank Grade. 26.5. Percentile-Group Grades. Table 26.2. Computation of Several Percentile-Group Grades with Different Percentage Groupings. 26.6. Arithmetic Mean. 26.7. Standard Deviation. Table 26.3. Computation of Mean, Standard Deviation, Standard Scores, and T-Scores. 26.8. Standard Score. 26.9. T-Scores. 26.10. Grading Methods Compared. Section 26C Effectiveness of Individual Test Items 26.11. Ease Index of Test Items. 26.12. Simple Formula for Ease Index. 26.13. Interpreting the Ease Index: 26.14. Differentiation Index (DI) of Test Items. 26.15. Computing Differentiation Index. 26.16. Interpreting the Differentiation Index. 26.17. Analyzing All Responses To a Test Item. 26.18. Summary. Chapter 27—USING FEEDBACK IN THE CLASSROOM 27.1. Introduction: 27.2. Definition and Theory. 27.3. Giving Feedback to Students. 27.4. Characteristics of Effective Feedback: 27.5. Methods of Giving Feedback. 27.6. Summary. Chapter 28—STUDENT DIFFERENCES 28.1. Introduction. 28.2. Match the Method to the Student. 28.3. Match Students to the Planned Learning Experience. 28.4. Combining the Two Approaches. 28.5. Group Differences. 28.6. Individual Differences. 28.7. Summary. Chapter 29—THE DYNAMICS OF SMALL LEARNING GROUPS Section 29A Overview 29.1. Introduction. 29.2. Small Learning Group Defined. Section 29B Small-Group Learning Influences 29.3. Benefits of Small-Group Learning. 29.4. Norms. 29.5. Cohesiveness. 29.6. Increasing Cohesiveness. 29.7. Consensus. Section 29C Roles of Class Members and Instructors 29.8. Class Member Roles. 29.9. Dealing with Nonproductive Roles. 29.10. Dealing with Nonproductive Groups. 29.11. Student Needs. 29.12. The Instructor As Leader. 29.13. Summary. Chapter 30—THE INSTRUCTOR AS A HELPER Section 30A Overview 30.1. Introduction. 30.2. Counseling Defined. 30.3. Counseling as a Process. 30.4. The Helping Relationship. 30.5. Improvement or Change in Student Behavior. 30.6. Student Requests for Assistance. Section 30B The Helping Relationship 30.7. Importance of the Helping Relationship. 30.8. The Counseling Environment 30.9. Stages of a Helping Interview. 30.10. Instructor Attitudes. 30.11. Interviewing Skills. Section 30C Counseling Approaches 30.12. Overview. 30.13. Cognitive Approach. 30.14. Behavioral Approach. 30.15. Affective Approach. Section 30D Referrals and Communications 30.16. Referral. 30.17. Communications Between Instructors and Students in a Counseling Environment: 30.18. Summary. Chapter 31—SELF-CONCEPT 31.1. Introduction. 31.2. Description of the Self-Concept. 31.3. Formation of the Academic Self-Concept. 31.4. Self-Concept Defense Mechanisms. 31.5. Enhancing the Self-Concept: 31.6. Suggestions for Improving Self-Concepts: 31.7. Summary. Attachment 1—GLOSSARY OF REFERENCES AND SUPPORTING INFORMATION Attachment 2—EXAMPLE LESSON PLAN FOR FORMAL LECTURE METHOD Attachment 3—EXAMPLE LESSON PLAN FOR INFORMAL LECTURE METHOD Attachment 4—EXAMPLE LESSON PLAN FOR GUIDED DISCUSSION METHOD PROBLEM-SOLUTION PATTERN Attachment 5—EXAMPLES OF CASE METHOD OBJECTIVES WITH CASE ELEMENTS Attachment 6—EXAMPLE LESSON PLAN FOR CASE STUDY METHOD PROBLEM-SOLUTION PATTERN Attachment 7—EXAMPLE LESSON PLAN FOR CASE STUDY METHOD TOPICAL PATTERN Attachment 8—EXAMPLE LESSON PLAN FOR TEACHING INTERVIEW Attachment 9—EXAMPLE LESSON PLAN FOR DEMONSTRATION-PERFORMANCE METHOD Attachment 10—EXAMPLE LESSON PLAN FOR METHOD OF INSTRUCTION LEARNING GAME Attachment 11—FEEDBACK FOR STUDENT SPEAKING Attachment 12—GUIDELINES FOR PROVIDING FEEDBACK ON STUDENT WRITING
Please Read The Website Disclaimer!
Copyright 1986-2012, The Survival & Self-Reliance Studies Institute (SSRsi), All Rights Reserved
Site conceptualized, designed, created & maintained by MEG Raven
Snail Mail: SSRsi, PO Box 2572 Dillon, CO. 80435-2572